The EPOS "Koroqlu" And NATIONAL LEGENDS

T

he heroic epos of each people is created during the periods of activization of its public life. When and why there was an Azerbaijan epos? In its formation it is possible to allocate two basic stages which are characteristic creation of the completed, integral monuments: " the Book of mine Dada Qorqud " and "Koroqlu". If in the first reflection struggle for the statement of spiritual life of people on a threshold of the Middle Ages in the second echoes of the rough events accompanying formation of actually Azerbaijan epos are embodied. Mythological heroes popular in people were projected on heads of national movements. The known Azerbaijan specialist in folklore professor F. Farhad writes: " the Maintenance and theme Koroqlu " were known already in our century. In the form of legends, legends, bylines ". It does not cause doubts. However integral, completed epos Koroqlu "certainly" was generated at later stage. Use of a previous folklore material naturally. In this connection professor F. Farhad marks: " the Best samples of oral national creativity constantly reflected interests of hard workers and have been closely connected with history of people ". It approved still great And. M.A. Qorki: " not having studied oral national creativity, it is impossible to learn original history of the worker of people ".
For history of Azerbaijan people "Koroqlu" has exclusively "great value". In the development this epos has passed stages of myths, legends and, at last, saga. For studying the first stage of the epos the extensive material is given with myths "Aldada" and " Dada Guans ". In them the information on birth Koroqlu, reared by milk волчицы on mountain Besikli, about its father Aldada and mother Mahpeykar, about an origin of its horses Qirat and Durat from the Epos contains.
On some legends Koroqlu of veins on that party Kura on mountain Yellanqush. Its horse Qirat, with ease overcoming ravines, the rivers, lakes, passes only at a ferry through the river has experienced difficulties. Concerned by it, Koroqlu sees comely with the shepherd and asks it

- Uncle how this violent river refers to?
- The sonny, this river refers to violent Kura.
- Koroqlu has looked at the river and said:
- Is not present, the violent river,
- I nevertheless should leave from here.
-You violent and I violent, to us to not get on.
In other legend is spoken, that the big group of enemies pursues Koroqlu. But unless it is possible to catch up Koroqlu, when he is the on Qirat? At last Koroqlu approaches to Kura. It beats Qirat, not known spin. In a flash the horse through Kura and when concerns with hoofs of coast jumps, Koroqlu hears the . The enemy has stayed on the other side of the river. To find out the reason of this ring. Koroqlu goes down with driving and, having examined horseshoes, sees, that one on four horseshoes has fallen off from a back hoof and has fallen in the river. It sees the boy grazing lambs.
- The sonny, clever how this river refers to?
- Kur, - that has answered. Koroqlu see to the river, then on hoof Qirata which has remained without a horseshoe also has told:
- Ah, the river, you unrestrained (Kura), I unrestrained (Koroqlu), together we shall not get on. And that's why I leave. Both these legends convincingly prove, that Koroqlu did not live on coast Kura, otherwise it would know it. It coordinates with the legend that force Koroqlu in mountains where there is its haven. It is caused by the most ancient cult of mountains.
Speak, that after Koroqlu said from coast Kura, it has located in a valley of other river. In a dream he said:
- Coast of the river - a way to streams, plain - road for everyone. Brave Koroqlu, leans on mountains. Wake up and listen: on what mountain Qirat digs, there also construct a fortress of a stone. Koroqlu wakes up. Rises on mountain, whence reaches source. It cannot believe to eyes - Qirat has dug a hole for the base of a fortress deeply. As soon as the hoof of a horse strikes about a stone.
In the morning braves, having woken up, see, that to box Koroqlu is empty. They guess. Start it to search. And suddenly see, that Koroqlu and Qirat at top of mountain. The braves cannot believe to the eyes. Koroqlu said: - Yes, miracles. Qirat for a night has dug a hoof a hole for the base of a fortress.
After that Koroqlu tells to the braves. Every brave from coast of the river on mountain lifts 77 stones. For 77 days the greater fortress is under construction of a stone. In fortress underground roads, channels are laid. A citadel name " Koroqlu’s Stone Fortress ". In this legend besides traces of ancient a cult of a horse, and also motive of " a powerful dream ", characteristic for fugitive epic tradition, there is a powerful substratum, a fundamental principle of a cult of mountains.
Formation of the epos in later Middle Ages has as though given " the second breath " to ancient tradition, has transferred it on historical persons and has connected with concrete events. " Koroqlu has heard, that on coast of the violent river lives equal to him a brave by name Salah. Having learned about it, Koroqlu is on a meeting with brave said: - About you speak, that you are brave , whether is it true? Salah said: - it is true.
The answer of the guy has liked Koroqlu. - And where is your horse? - asks Koroqlu. The guy answers: - In a stall. Salah under request Koroqlu deduces bay on stalls. - Sit down on a horse, (ride) aside the violent river and turn back. The guy sits down on a horse, skips in one, then in other party, the archer forces down a kite. Koroqlu said:
- Give we shall jump together, we shall pass to other coast of the violent river. Salah’s horse, Is well known the rights of the violent river, crosses it easily. Koroqlu’s horse in one place stumbles. Koroqlu speaks: - This river same violent, as your horse. Having kissed each other with Salah,and Koroqlu left. When Salah comes back in village, people ask it "; - That to you has told Koroqlu?
- Koroqlu in the beginning has told:
" Sit down on a horse, ride, then likely back ". When it is forwarded through the violent river, its horse has stumbled. Since that time the place where have arranged jumps Koroqlu and Salah, refers as Mingacevir. The violent river - Kura. The name of village where veins Salah, became Salahli.
People has allocated the hero with a complex of positive qualities, among which dominating - nobleness: Koroqlu, having met other hero, competes with it in jumps, shooting and, having found its equal to, it is with all the heart pleased. In this legend, as well as in the epos " Dada Qorqud ", traces of ancient tradition are visible: Koroqlu, as well as Dada Qorqud, denominates the rivers, villages, districts.
On ancient belief everyone has a star in the sky and a stone - on the ground. Till now it was kept as anathema " That your stone have thrown out ". Certainly, in traditional texts a stone first of all - a sign. In mountains Zangazur, Murguz, Dashkasan, Lacin, Agdam, Qubadli, Baskecid, Borcali, Gadabay, Goyca besides rocks and fortresses Koroqlu meet in set and stones Koroqlu. From southern slopes of the Big Caucasus up to remote villages Goyca, Borcali and Naxhcivan traces of this cult are everywhere observed. The stone wounded Koroqlu " is interesting ": the hero has come to it after fight the covered with wounds, his blood has spilled here, here again the beloved has tied up to it wounds.
The basic fugitive elements of epic image Koroqlu - fighting roar, Qirat, Misri sword and Chanlibel with which the whole complex of legends and representations is connected. The legend about " ? stone Koroqlu " is reasonably interesting in this respect.
At foot of the Kapaz there is a mountain. It name mountain Dod. At top of this mountain there is a big stone. Close this stone reminds a table. Speak, Koroqlu every time, coming back after fight, sat down and had a rest on this stone. Vicinities from this stone looked more beautiful. Before campaign Koroqlu together with his brave men settled down on this stone and considered the plan of fight.
Speak, Koroqlu it was already made. Hands have tired , the voice has sat down. Only sword Misri remained same sharp. That sword, that always stirred to action for happiness and freedom of people. Till now this terrible weapon was in reliable hands. Once living last days Koroqlu one idea starts to disturb: " Suddenly sword Misri will pass in other hands. Suddenly the owner of these hands will appear the enemy of people. Suddenly sword Misri will turn back against people ". After long meditations Koroqlu sticks this sword to this stone. Quiet for destiny of Misri sword, Koroqlu dies here. And consequently people names this stone " ? stone Koroqlu ". Other legend enters Into the same circle - "Chanlibel" also.
" During the herd of seep roaming in mountains the shepherd leading herd upwards on a track, has seen, that on a slope of mountain which top disappears in a fog, a certain old man clambers. After long rise the old man has stopped, having bent down, has shifted. The old man has lain down and has nestled the person to dewy grasses.
The shepherd until has risen on the hills covered by a fog, all turned around and looked at the old man. And it saw each time, that the old man lays on the ground as if sleeps, and will wake up only in the evening. During the herd of seep roaming on the plain the shepherd has again seen the old man on the same place. The old man has again shifted from a place a rock and, having pushed with his breast, and rolled downwards. Then has laid down on the ground, having put the person to a grass, and if increasing of livestock on the ground, remaining immovable.
The shepherd has thought, something the old man has gone mad, or any great secret, any miracle here is hidden. It has let herd to be grazed on a slope of mountain. Has cautiously risen to the old man and has woken it: - Hey, "grandfather" why do you do so ? The old man has smiled: - Unless you do not know, what at old men of mind is diminished? What you still wait from the person of my age? "
The shepherd was the person who has seen the world. It has seen, that eyes of the old man are shone by mind, wisdom, and it perfectly knows, that does.
- the grandfather why you lead into me a sin? I Swear the Allah (LORD) if I had so much as yours, I would become the lord of the world. The old man, seeing, that it cannot lead this shepherd with ease, has told the truth: - Have you heard about Koroqlu?
- Yes.
- Have you heard about Damirci ogli Dali Hasan?(the son of blacksmith’s-Hasan) - Yes, I have heard much. To me my grandfather had told about him. The old man has addressed the person to mountain through which crept over fogs:
- This mountain Chanlibel, and I - the son of blacksmith’s-Hasan . The shepherd in the beginning has thought, as Koroqlu, and all mad men are alive, and still in Chanlibel. However it did not find room in its head: in fact told to it about Koroqlu its grandfather for a long time already has died in the age of hundred years. How this Dali Hasan(Crazy Hasan) till now lives? The shepherd has not believed to it.
- The uncle, - has told it, - unless the person can live so much? The old man has risen. Has lowered the hand on a rock, has torn off a piece which seven bulls hardly could lift, with roar "having lifted" it above a head has thrown in a precipice. - Lie down on the ground, put an ear to the ground, and listen.
While the fragment of a rock slid, the shepherd has heard neigh horses, the voice of Koroqlu has reached it, a thunder of sword , the ground has begun to shake from cudgel impacts . From depth of the ground the new roar equal to roar of the old man as though its present voice, call still worried under the ground has risen, was overflown, conducted удальцов behind itself. The Same idea is incorporated in other legend which is a part of a fairy tale on hunter Prime.
" At the foot of mountain the old man sat. Its beard and top of mountain were one color - white. It was possible to think, that the bottom still had whom of a snow … Old man was similar to the person tired, done the big way. It was going to rise for mountain. There were three horsemen. They have been armed. One went ahead. Similar, that it was the big person. If not so, unless other two horsemen specially would lag behind?
Having seen the old man, horsemen have stopped. Going ahead of something one of two horsemen has told, and, having directed a horse to the old man, said: - Hey, the old man, the owner calls you. The old man was straightened, has asked: - Are wishes telling anything ? - I do not know. – why I am necessary for him ? – Go and, ask him.
- Transfer it, that is more useless so to address with the old man. - unless it is possible to speak such words to the owner? - then go, tell, that it - does not hear the deaf person, mute cannot speak, and even gestures to explain to him something it is impossible. The person has directed the horse to the owner and something has told to it. The owner has angrily whacked the racer whip. The horse has shot up also a bird was transferred to the old man. The owner has angrily shouted:
- Whether there is here a game? The old man has nodded. The owner, having lowered a voice, has asked: - whether Itself saw? The old man has again nodded. The owner has understood, that hearing at the old man excellent. Even more having lowered a voice, has asked: - In what party? The old man has specified a hand to itself in a breast. The owner was confused, has begun to doubt. Whether the old man raves? Unless in a breast where heart of the person, can be game?
" This old man this secret not a couple another can wishes to tell, what? The game which was seen by it can, is not similar to another? " - the owner has thought and has ordered to one of servants to give the old man of the horse and the weapon. The old man has armed, villages on driving. Then the horse of the old man has turned to a lightning and with a roar and a thunder has disappeared from a kind. After a while the old man has seemed with deer in hands. Has thrown it upwards, having taken out a sword, chop it half-and-half in the air. Again gallop his horse, on the path , having bent down, has picked up one half of ink, at having taken out in second time - the second. Both the owner, and the servant have been shaken. Whence in the old man this valiant daring? In fact not everyone young can so to skip. The owner has asked: - the Old man, who are you? The old man has descended from a horse, has returned the weapon to the owner.
- I’m Eyvaz, brave Koroqlu, - have told it. - Grow old, people lean on filial mountain, patrimonial mountain, mountain of courage. I have grown old too, have come to lean the people of mountain .This mountain which you see before yourselves - Chanlibel - mountain Koroqlu ". As it was specified above, Eyvaz in this legend also carries out function of the transmitter of tradition. Rather interestingly, and that the cycle of legends about Eyvaz not only occurs till now in people, but also replenishes with new texts.
" Via Yasamal the guy on a horse goes down. At river Shamkir catches up three guys going from Chardakhli. Horsemen argue with fervency between themselves. The first horseman says:
- If in these edges there will be a guy who will dare to leave on a duel with me I after that on a horse shall not sit down, the sword on a belt will be not hung up, himself consider as brave, I shall not begin. The second has supported it:
- And how? We Shall take you if I learn, that here is a brave, equal to me, I shall not leave, a leg in aiming ,I shall not enclose.
Only the third horseman from time to time rebuffed them:
- Hey, children, suckers. Every time before to speak about yourseves, think of others. Between heroism in language and in practice a greater difference. Do not throw the chaff. Here native land Koroqlu, in each valley lives braves, everyone is brave. Suddenly they see, that the young guy in beautiful cap, chukha (old shoe), with a dagger, armed, but on a thin horse goes.
The first horseman speaks: - At this guy clothes beautiful, and a horse dead. Let's take away from it clothes and the weapon. The second has supported it: - you do not see, his sword slips from a belt s. The third has warned comrades:
- I said there were a lot of braves! And one guy heard this conversation. Suddenly towards to them run deer. The guy has offered horsemen: - Let's catch up and we shall catch this deer.
Horsemen said: - Listen, brother, a horse к will not catch up a deer. The guy has put spurs "semen" ordinary-looking to a horse, has thrown a lasso, has caught a deer and has chopped off to it a head. Has then addressed to self-satisfied horsemen: - Be a victim to your comrade. Not that your heads I shall chop off in the same way, as deer. The third horseman has told: - See, that under the cap can be brave. . However in the legend about Darband- campaign Koroqlu, married a the daughter of the Arab plough Momina - Xatun. First of all this plot more likely international, rather than inherent only "Koroqlu". In one of the legends connected with Koroqlu, it is spoken, that: During the hottest period of summer the ice was necessary for the patient. Speak, that at this time year the ice could be found only in the Black cave. Anybody from fear does not dare to enter into this cave. Koroqlu there is to a cave one and in five days there is it all in blood with icicles of an ice in hands. It becomes known, that Koroqlu in a dark cave has met a huge dragon and has killed it. This cave name " Ice cave Koroqlu ".
In this place Koroqlu is saved from enemy arrows, has built to himself a small tower. Once after battle it came back in a fortress. Suddenly hears, because of a stone stop reaches. Also sees, that the young guy lays on the ground and groans. The guy tells, that it have strongly beaten, have taken away from it the bride and have withdrawn it. Koroqlu, sowing on Qirat, turns back, beats off the bride of the guy and returns it to him. Young express gratitude Koroqlu.
People trusted the hero, loved it. To not find such village, area, settlement where there would be no place or a legend connected with Koroqlu. Koroqlu and it Qirat can pass through the most difficult passes, deep breakages. Through precipices which passes Qirat, there cannot pass any other horse. Near to village Cigazor Lacin - area there is one stone. It name " Stone-horseshoe Qirat". In legend Koroqlu jumped on Qirat through a precipice, that behind a stone. Qirat during a powerful jump has struck on a stone, and on it there was a trace of a horseshoe. Near to settlement Aksipara of the Kazakh area there is rock Koroqlu. Nearby to village Kiran, Touz area also there is a rock and fortress Koroqlu. On these rocks and fortresses there are places for patrol, springs, platforms for trainings Koroqlu. Are interesting also. " Familiar stone Koroqlu " on plain Agoyuq of area Zangelan, " Hunting stone Koroqlu " between Sisian and Zangaazur mountains. Koroqlu, having lost some brave men, left in this place a stone-sign, that supposedly wait for me here. "Hunters" the stone meant, that in these places Koroqlu was on hunting. On tower Koroqlu in village Qochulu Bolnis - area in day of war seven fires were lit.
In settlement Yagifli there is rock Koroqlu. Inside of it there is a cave. In a cave - two flat stones, similar to plates. In the deepening which are available in both stones, water flows down. In one of deepening of water it is more, than in other. Speak, that from small drank Durat, from big Qirat. In general always Qirat it is described strong, Durat is much weaker than it. And it willy-nilly forces to recollect two geldings - with gouty and the muttonheads, from " Legends about Bamsi Beyrak ", " Kitabi Dada Qorqud ". Under legends, at danger Qirat neighed and beat a hoof about a stone, and at this time Koroqlu left on top of mountain, published roar and called the brave men on fight.
The ancient bridge on river Gadik in village Salah of area Idzevan refers to as "Bridge Koroqlu". To Local residents was not under force to construct the bridge through this rough river. Koroqlu, have been called the brave , within several days has constructed through this river the bridge and has got out people of heavy position. Since then this bridge refers to as "Bridge Koroqlu".
It is necessary to notice, that people connected impassable passes, unapproachable rocks and fortresses, strong stone bridges with names of the invincible heroes. Thus, we see, that the epos "Koroqlu" practically always existed in two parameters: mythological and historical. Its powerful tradition penetrates all stages of historical development of Azerbaijan people. Probably, its roots leave far for frameworks of historically foreseeable time. This «-mythological complex not time became more active, in particular, last time during the late Middle Ages to which sometimes wrongly some researchers carry not only final formation, but also the occurrence of the epos, to what the above-stated myths and legends (and not only they) do not give resolutely any bases.

Sadnik Pasa Pirsultanli
the Doctor philological sciences, the professor
   
 
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© Görkəmli folklorşünas alim, professor Sədnik Paşa Pirsultanlı. 2009